About gaskets

What is a static gasket?

A static gasket is a mechanical sealing device used to prevent leakage between two stationary surfaces. It is designed to create a barrier that prevents the escape or entry of fluids or gases under specific operating conditions. Static gaskets are commonly used in a wide range of industrial applications, including pipelines, engines, pumps, valves, and various types of machinery.

The primary function of a static gasket is to fill the irregularities and imperfections present between the mating surfaces, ensuring a tight and reliable seal. These gaskets are typically made from compressible materials that can conform to the surface irregularities, thereby compensating for any gaps or inconsistencies.

Static gaskets are available in various shapes, sizes, and materials to suit different applications. Common materials used for static gaskets include rubber, cork, paper, metal, graphite, and various synthetic compounds. The choice of material depends on factors such as the type of fluids or gases being sealed, operating temperatures, pressures, and environmental conditions.

During installation, the static gasket is placed between the two mating surfaces and compressed to a predetermined level. The compression squeezes the gasket material, causing it to conform tightly to the surfaces and create an effective seal. The compressive force is typically applied through bolts or fasteners that hold the surfaces together.

Static gaskets are called "static" because they are not intended to be moved or subjected to significant dynamic forces once they are installed. They are designed to maintain their sealing properties over a long period without any movement.

It's important to note that the effectiveness of a static gasket depends on proper installation, appropriate material selection, and regular maintenance to ensure optimal performance. In some cases, gaskets may need to be replaced periodically to prevent leakage or maintain operational efficiency.


What is the difference between a static and dynamic gaskets?

The main difference between static and dynamic gaskets lies in their intended use and the types of forces they are designed to withstand:

1. Static Gaskets:

Static gaskets, as explained earlier, are used to seal two stationary surfaces. They are employed in applications where there is no movement or minimal movement between the mating surfaces after installation. The primary purpose of a static gasket is to create a reliable seal against leakage of fluids or gases under static conditions. Static gaskets are compressed during installation and rely on the compressive force to maintain the seal. They are not designed to handle significant dynamic forces or movement.

2. Dynamic Gaskets:

Dynamic gaskets, on the other hand, are specifically engineered to withstand movement and dynamic forces. They are used in applications where there is relative motion between the mating surfaces, such as rotating or reciprocating machinery components. Dynamic gaskets are designed to accommodate the movement and maintain a seal under changing conditions. They are typically made from more flexible and resilient materials that can withstand repeated compression and release without losing their sealing properties.

Key characteristics of dynamic gaskets include:

a. Flexibility: Dynamic gaskets are designed to flex and move along with the mating surfaces, allowing for the required motion without compromising the seal.

b. Resistance to Wear and Tear: Dynamic gaskets are constructed to withstand the wear and tear caused by repeated movement and contact with the mating surfaces. They are often reinforced with materials like metal or fabric to enhance durability.

c. Low Friction: Dynamic gaskets may incorporate lubricants or coatings to reduce friction between the gasket and the surfaces it contacts, minimizing wear and facilitating movement.

Examples of dynamic gaskets include O-rings, shaft seals, piston rings, and other specialized gaskets designed for dynamic applications.

In summary, while both static and dynamic gaskets serve the purpose of sealing surfaces, static gaskets are used for stationary applications, while dynamic gaskets are specifically designed to accommodate movement and withstand dynamic forces.

Which types of metallic gaskets exist?

Several types of metallic gaskets are used in various industrial applications. Here are some common types of metallic gaskets:

  1. Spiral Wound Gaskets: Spiral wound gaskets are made by winding alternating layers of metal strip and filler material, such as graphite or PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), into a spiral shape. The metal strip provides structural support and pressure resistance, while the filler material ensures sealing properties. Spiral wound gaskets are versatile and widely used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications.
  2. Ring Type Joint (RTJ) Gaskets: RTJ gaskets are used in flanged connections in the oil and gas industry. They consist of a metallic ring with an octagonal or oval cross-section. RTJ gaskets are designed to fit into the groove of the flange and create a metal-to-metal seal. They are commonly made from materials like soft iron, low-carbon steel, or stainless steel.
  3. Metal Jacketed Gaskets: Metal jacketed gaskets consist of a soft filler material, such as graphite or PTFE, enclosed by a metal jacket. The metal jacket provides stability and protection to the filler material. These gaskets are often used in applications where resistance to high pressures and temperatures is required, such as in heat exchangers, boilers, and flanged connections.
  4. Kammprofile Gaskets: Kammprofile gaskets, also known as serrated gaskets, feature a solid metal core with concentric serrations on both sides. The serrations increase the sealing surface area and create a tight seal when compressed. Kammprofile gaskets are suitable for high-temperature and high-pressure applications and are commonly used in the oil and gas, petrochemical, and power generation industries.
  5. Corrugated Metal Gaskets: Corrugated metal gaskets are made of thin metal layers corrugated or wavy in shape. The corrugations enhance flexibility and allow for better conformity to the mating surfaces. These gaskets are used in applications where vibration, thermal cycling, or flange rotation is expected. They are often made from materials like stainless steel or other alloys.
  6. Metal O-Ring Gaskets: Metal O-ring gaskets are circular gaskets with a cross-section in the shape of an "O." They are made from solid metal, usually stainless steel, and provide a reliable seal in high-pressure and high-temperature environments. Metal O-ring gaskets are commonly used in applications where elastomeric O-rings may not be suitable.

These are just a few examples of metallic gaskets commonly used in industrial settings. The selection of a specific type of metallic gasket depends on factors such as the application requirements, operating conditions, pressure, temperature, and chemical compatibility.